Vaskulárna medicína 1/2023
COVID-19, coagulation and thrombosis
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is often complicated by coagulopathy and thrombosis. COVID-19 coagulopathy (CAC, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy) is a new term that arose during the pandemic. CAC can lead to thrombosis, multiple organ damage and death. The coronavirus interferes with the blood clotting process and causes laboratory hematological abnormalities. In this review article, we emphasize the etiopathogenesis of coagulopathy, thrombosis, direct cytotoxicity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, activation of pro-inflammatory molecules such as cytokines, which are the basis of coagulopathy, and endothelial damage. Endothelial dysfunction is crucial regardless of the mechanism of CAC. CAC has specific features that distinguish it from disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in sepsis.